Professor Vilsbøll has been involved in diabetes research since 1997, and in 2004 she established the Center for Diabetes Research at Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (now part of Steno). Her research is focused on the pathophysiology of obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, regulation of appetite and food intake, and the utilisation of incretins as therapeutics. Integration of the gut in the understanding of human glucose metabolism has become a major focus in her lab over recent years.
Professor Vilsbøll is an experienced teacher and supervises several PhD and medical students conducting diabetes research. She has around 350 scientific publications and several published books and book chapters. She is a frequently invited speaker at international meetings. In addition to her teaching and research posts, Professor Vilsbøll is a member of numerous professional societies and committees, and referees for several international journals.