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In this review, the authors provide a comprehensive look at the technologies behind, for example, ultra-long-acting insulin, and in-development oral insulin and tissue-selective insulin. It is made clear how academic research in partnership with the pharmaceutical industry have allowed for the large-scale production of these refined insulin analogues.
Looking to the future, the authors outline how molecular engineering, digitalization and device technology are poised to enable even more advanced insulin-based therapies such as glucose-sensitive analogues.
This article includes a narrated video where the authors describe the structural aspects of insulin analog design.
As the authors describe in this perspective featured in the inaugural issue of Nature Communications Medicine, the journey that started with the discovery of insulin has not yet ended. The article outlines the several ground-breaking medical and scientific developments inspired by insulin as a model compound and discusses how future advances in peptide- and protein-based therapies for chronic diseases inarguably can be traced back to the insulin-related advances of the past century.